Difference between revisions of "Central Processing Unit"

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A '''central processing unit''' ('''CPU'''), also called a '''central processor''', '''main processor''' or just '''[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor_(computing) processor]''', is the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_circuit electronic circuit]ry within a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer computer] that executes [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instruction_set_architecture instructions] that make up a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_program computer program]. The CPU performs basic [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arithmetic arithmetic], logic, controlling, and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Input/output input/output] (I/O) operations specified by the instructions in the program. This contrasts with external components such as [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_data_storage#Primary_storage main memory] and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Input/output I/O] circuitry,<ref name="kuck">{{cite book|last1= Kuck|first1= David|title= Computers and Computations, Vol 1|date= 1978|publisher= John Wiley & Sons, Inc.|isbn= 978-0471027164|page= 12}}</ref> and specialized processors such as [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphics_processing_unit graphics processing unit]s (GPUs).
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A '''central processing unit''' ('''CPU'''), also called a '''central processor''', '''main processor''' or just '''[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor_(computing) processor]''', is the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_circuit electronic circuit]ry within a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer computer] that executes [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instruction_set_architecture instructions] that make up a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_program computer program]. The CPU performs basic [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arithmetic arithmetic], logic, controlling, and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Input/output input/output] (I/O) operations specified by the instructions in the program. This contrasts with external components such as [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_data_storage#Primary_storage main memory] and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Input/output I/O] circuitry, and specialized processors such as [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphics_processing_unit graphics processing unit]s (GPUs).
  
The computer industry used the term "central processing unit" as early as 1955.<ref name= weik1955>{{cite journal | author = Weik, Martin H. | title = A Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems | publisher = [[Ballistic Research Laboratory]] | url = http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/BRL-i.html#IBM-CPC | year = 1955 }}</ref><ref name="weik1961">{{cite journal | author = Weik, Martin H. | title = A Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems | publisher = [[Ballistic Research Laboratory]] | url = http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/BRL61.html | year = 1961 }}</ref>
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The computer industry used the term "central processing unit" as early as 1955.
  
The form, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor_design design], and implementation of CPUs have changed over time, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged. Principal components of a CPU include the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arithmetic_logic_unit arithmetic logic unit] (ALU) that performs arithmetic and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boolean_algebra logic operation]s, [processor register https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor_register]s that supply [operand https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operand]s to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations, and a control unit that orchestrates the fetching (from memory) and execution of instructions by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components.
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The form, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor_design design], and implementation of CPUs have changed over time, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged. Principal components of a CPU include the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arithmetic_logic_unit arithmetic logic unit] (ALU) that performs arithmetic and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boolean_algebra logic operation]s, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor_register processor register]s that supply [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operand operand]s to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations, and a control unit that orchestrates the fetching (from memory) and execution of instructions by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components.
  
Most modern CPUs are implemented on [[integrated circuit]] (IC) [[microprocessor]]s, with one or more CPUs on a single [[metal-oxide-semiconductor]] (MOS) IC chip. Microprocessors chips with multiple CPUs are [[multi-core processor]]s. The individual physical CPUs, '''processor cores''', can also be [[Multithreading (computer architecture)|multithreaded]] to create additional virtual or logical CPUs.<ref name="intel-pcm" />
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Most modern CPUs are implemented on [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit integrated circuit] (IC) [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microprocessor microprocessor]s, with one or more CPUs on a single [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOSFET metal-oxide-semiconductor] (MOS) IC chip. Microprocessors chips with multiple CPUs are [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-core_processor multi-core processor]s. The individual physical CPUs, '''processor cores''', can also be [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multithreading_(computer_architecture) multithreaded] to create additional virtual or logical CPUs.
  
An IC that contains a CPU may also contain [[Computer memory|memory]], [[peripheral]] interfaces, and other components of a computer; such integrated devices are variously called [[microcontroller]]s or [[System on a chip|systems on a chip]] (SoC).  
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An IC that contains a CPU may also contain [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_memory memory]], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peripheral peripheral] interfaces, and other components of a computer; such integrated devices are variously called [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcontroller microcontroller]s or [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_on_a_chip systems on a chip] (SoC).  
  
Array processors or [[vector processor]]s have multiple processors that operate in parallel, with no unit considered central. [[#Virtual CPUs|Virtual CPUs]] are an abstraction of dynamical aggregated computational resources.<ref>{{Cite book
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Array processors or [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_processor vector processor]s have multiple processors that operate in parallel, with no unit considered central. [[#Virtual CPUs|Virtual CPUs]] are an abstraction of dynamical aggregated computational resources.
|title= VMware vSphere Performance: Designing CPU, Memory, Storage, and Networking for Performance-Intensive Workloads
 
|last= Liebowitz, Kusek, Spies|first= Matt, Christopher, Rynardt
 
|publisher= Wiley|year= 2014
 
|isbn= 978-1-118-00819-5|pages= 68
 
 
}}
 
}}
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<h2>Notable CPU Companies</h2>
 
<h2>Notable CPU Companies</h2>
  
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Products from these companies can be found by clicking to their respective wiki pages.
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| [[AMD | Advanced Micro Devices ]]
 
| [[AMD | Advanced Micro Devices ]]
| May 1, 1969, Sunnyvale, CA
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| May 1, 1969
 
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| [[File:Intel_Logo.png | 50px]]
 
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| [[Intel | Intel ]]
 
| [[Intel | Intel ]]
| July 18, 1968, Mountain View, CA
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| July 18, 1968
 
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| [[File:Arm_Logo.png | 50px]]
 
| [[File:Arm_Logo.png | 50px]]
 
| [[Arm_Ltd. | arm]]
 
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| February 21, 1987
 
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Latest revision as of 05:22, 28 February 2021

Wikipedia Logo White.png

A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor or just processor, is the electronic circuitry within a computer that executes instructions that make up a computer program. The CPU performs basic arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions in the program. This contrasts with external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry, and specialized processors such as graphics processing units (GPUs).

The computer industry used the term "central processing unit" as early as 1955.

The form, design, and implementation of CPUs have changed over time, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged. Principal components of a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that performs arithmetic and logic operations, processor registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations, and a control unit that orchestrates the fetching (from memory) and execution of instructions by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components.

Most modern CPUs are implemented on integrated circuit (IC) microprocessors, with one or more CPUs on a single metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) IC chip. Microprocessors chips with multiple CPUs are multi-core processors. The individual physical CPUs, processor cores, can also be multithreaded to create additional virtual or logical CPUs.

An IC that contains a CPU may also contain [memory], peripheral interfaces, and other components of a computer; such integrated devices are variously called microcontrollers or systems on a chip (SoC).

Array processors or vector processors have multiple processors that operate in parallel, with no unit considered central. Virtual CPUs are an abstraction of dynamical aggregated computational resources.

Intel CPU Core i7 6700K Skylake.jpg

An Intel Core i7 6700K

Notable CPU Companies

Products from these companies can be found by clicking to their respective wiki pages.

Company Founded
AMD Logo.png Advanced Micro Devices May 1, 1969
Intel Logo.png Intel July 18, 1968
Arm Logo.png arm 27 November 1990
TSMC Logo.png TSMC February 21, 1987

Related links

List of CPUs